Nuxt 2 reached End-of-Life on June 30th, 2024.

Upgrade Guide

Learn how to upgrade to the latest Nuxt version.

Upgrading Nuxt

Latest release

To upgrade Nuxt to the latest release, use the nuxi upgrade command.

npx nuxi upgrade

Nightly Release Channel

To use the latest Nuxt build and test features before their release, read about the nightly release channel guide.

The nightly release channel latest tag is currently tracking the Nuxt v4 branch, meaning that it is particularly likely to have breaking changes right now - be careful!You can opt in to the 3.x branch nightly releases with "nuxt": "npm:nuxt-nightly@3x".

Testing Nuxt 4

Nuxt 4 is planned to be released on or before June 14 (though obviously this is dependent on having enough time after Nitro's major release to be properly tested in the community, so be aware that this is not an exact date).

Until then, it is possible to test many of Nuxt 4's breaking changes from Nuxt version 3.12+.

Watch a video from Alexander Lichter showing how to opt in to Nuxt 4's breaking changes already.

Opting in to Nuxt 4

First, upgrade Nuxt to the latest release.

Then you can set your compatibilityVersion to match Nuxt 4 behavior:

nuxt.config.ts
export default 
defineNuxtConfig
({
future
: {
compatibilityVersion
: 4,
}, // To re-enable _all_ Nuxt v3 behavior, set the following options: // srcDir: '.', // dir: { // app: 'app' // }, // experimental: { // sharedPrerenderData: false, // compileTemplate: true, // resetAsyncDataToUndefined: true, // templateUtils: true, // relativeWatchPaths: true, // defaults: { // useAsyncData: { // deep: true // } // } // }, // unhead: { // renderSSRHeadOptions: { // omitLineBreaks: false // } // } })

When you set your compatibilityVersion to 4, defaults throughout your Nuxt configuration will change to opt in to Nuxt v4 behavior, but you can granularly re-enable Nuxt v3 behavior when testing, following the commented out lines above. Please file issues if so, so that we can address them in Nuxt or in the ecosystem.

Migrating to Nuxt 4

Breaking or significant changes will be noted here along with migration steps for backward/forward compatibility.

This section is subject to change until the final release, so please check back here regularly if you are testing Nuxt 4 using compatibilityVersion: 4.

Migrating Using Codemods

To facilitate the upgrade process, we have collaborated with the Codemod team to automate many migration steps with some open-source codemods.

If you encounter any issues, please report them to the Codemod team with npx codemod feedback ๐Ÿ™

For a complete list of Nuxt 4 codemods, detailed information on each, their source, and various ways to run them, visit the Codemod Registry.

You can run all the codemods mentioned in this guide using the following codemod recipe:

npx codemod@latest nuxt/4/migration-recipe

This command will execute all codemods in sequence, with the option to deselect any that you do not wish to run. Each codemod is also listed below alongside its respective change and can be executed independently.

New Directory Structure

๐Ÿšฆ Impact Level: Significant

Nuxt now defaults to a new directory structure, with backwards compatibility (so if Nuxt detects you are using the old structure, such as with a top-level pages/ directory, this new structure will not apply).

๐Ÿ‘‰ See full RFC

What Changed
  • the new Nuxt default srcDir is app/ by default, and most things are resolved from there.
  • serverDir now defaults to <rootDir>/server rather than <srcDir>/server
  • layers/, modules/ and public/ are resolved relative to <rootDir> by default
  • if using Nuxt Content v2.13+, content/ is resolved relative to <rootDir>
  • a new dir.app is added, which is the directory we look for router.options.ts and spa-loading-template.html - this defaults to <srcDir>/
An example v4 folder structure.
.output/
.nuxt/
app/
  assets/
  components/
  composables/
  layouts/
  middleware/
  pages/
  plugins/
  utils/
  app.config.ts
  app.vue
  router.options.ts
content/
layers/
modules/
node_modules/
public/
server/
  api/
  middleware/
  plugins/
  routes/
  utils/
nuxt.config.ts

๐Ÿ‘‰ For more details, see the PR implementing this change.

Reasons for Change
  1. Performance - placing all your code in the root of your repo causes issues with .git/ and node_modules/ folders being scanned/included by FS watchers which can significantly delay startup on non-Mac OSes.
  2. IDE type-safety - server/ and the rest of your app are running in two entirely different contexts with different global imports available, and making sure server/ isn't inside the same folder as the rest of your app is a big first step to ensuring you get good auto-completes in your IDE.
Migration Steps
  1. Create a new directory called app/.
  2. Move your assets/, components/, composables/, layouts/, middleware/, pages/, plugins/ and utils/ folders under it, as well as app.vue, error.vue, app.config.ts. If you have an app/router-options.ts or app/spa-loading-template.html, these paths remain the same.
  3. Make sure your nuxt.config.ts, content/, layers/, modules/, public/ and server/ folders remain outside the app/ folder, in the root of your project.
You can automate this migration by running npx codemod@latest nuxt/4/file-structure

However, migration is not required. If you wish to keep your current folder structure, Nuxt should auto-detect it. (If it does not, please raise an issue.) The one exception is that if you already have a custom srcDir. In this case, you should be aware that your modules/, public/ and server/ folders will be resolved from your rootDir rather than from your custom srcDir. You can override this by configuring dir.modules, dir.public and serverDir if you need to.

You can also force a v3 folder structure with the following configuration:

nuxt.config.ts
export default defineNuxtConfig({
  // This reverts the new srcDir default from `app` back to your root directory
  srcDir: '.',
  // This specifies the directory prefix for `app/router.options.ts` and `app/spa-loading-template.html`
  dir: {
    app: 'app'
  }
})

Shared Prerender Data

๐Ÿšฆ Impact Level: Medium

What Changed

We enabled a previously experimental feature to share data from useAsyncData and useFetch calls, across different pages. See original PR.

Reasons for Change

This feature automatically shares payload data between pages that are prerendered. This can result in a significant performance improvement when prerendering sites that use useAsyncData or useFetch and fetch the same data in different pages.

For example, if your site requires a useFetch call for every page (for example, to get navigation data for a menu, or site settings from a CMS), this data would only be fetched once when prerendering the first page that uses it, and then cached for use when prerendering other pages.

Migration Steps

Make sure that any unique key of your data is always resolvable to the same data. For example, if you are using useAsyncData to fetch data related to a particular page, you should provide a key that uniquely matches that data. (useFetch should do this automatically for you.)

app/pages/test/[slug].vue
// This would be unsafe in a dynamic page (e.g. `[slug].vue`) because the route slug makes a difference
// to the data fetched, but Nuxt can't know that because it's not reflected in the key.
const route = useRoute()
const { data } = await useAsyncData(async () => {
  return await $fetch(`/api/my-page/${route.params.slug}`)
})
// Instead, you should use a key that uniquely identifies the data fetched.
const { data } = await useAsyncData(route.params.slug, async () => {
  return await $fetch(`/api/my-page/${route.params.slug}`)
})

Alternatively, you can disable this feature with:

nuxt.config.ts
export default 
defineNuxtConfig
({
experimental
: {
sharedPrerenderData
: false
} })

Default data and error values in useAsyncData and useFetch

๐Ÿšฆ Impact Level: Minimal

What Changed

data and error objects returned from useAsyncData will now default to undefined.

Reasons for Change

Previously data was initialized to null but reset in clearNuxtData to undefined. error was initialized to null. This change is to bring greater consistency.

Migration Steps

If you were checking if data.value or error.value were null, you can update these checks to check for undefined instead.

You can automate this step by running npx codemod@latest nuxt/4/default-data-error-value

If you encounter any issues you can revert back to the previous behavior with:

nuxt.config.ts
export default 
defineNuxtConfig
({
experimental
: {
defaults
: {
useAsyncData
: {
value
: 'null',
errorValue
: 'null'
} } } })

Please report an issue if you are doing this, as we do not plan to keep this as configurable.

Removal of deprecated boolean values for dedupe option when calling refresh in useAsyncData and useFetch

๐Ÿšฆ Impact Level: Minimal

What Changed

Previously it was possible to pass dedupe: boolean to refresh. These were aliases of cancel (true) and defer (false).

app.vue
const { 
refresh
} = await
useAsyncData
(async () => ({
message
: 'Hello, Nuxt 3!' }))
async function
refreshData
() {
await
refresh
({
dedupe
: true })
}
Reasons for Change

These aliases were removed, for greater clarity.

The issue came up when adding dedupe as an option to useAsyncData, and we removed the boolean values as they ended up being opposites.

refresh({ dedupe: false }) meant 'do not cancel existing requests in favour of this new one'. But passing dedupe: true within the options of useAsyncData means 'do not make any new requests if there is an existing pending request.' (See PR.)

Migration Steps

The migration should be straightforward:

  const { refresh } = await useAsyncData(async () => ({ message: 'Hello, Nuxt 3!' }))
  
  async function refreshData () {
-   await refresh({ dedupe: true })
+   await refresh({ dedupe: 'cancel' })

-   await refresh({ dedupe: false })
+   await refresh({ dedupe: 'defer' })
  }
You can automate this step by running npx codemod@latest nuxt/4/deprecated-dedupe-value

Respect defaults when clearing data in useAsyncData and useFetch

๐Ÿšฆ Impact Level: Minimal

What Changed

If you provide a custom default value for useAsyncData, this will now be used when calling clear or clearNuxtData and it will be reset to its default value rather than simply unset.

Reasons for Change

Often users set an appropriately empty value, such as an empty array, to avoid the need to check for null/undefined when iterating over it. This should be respected when resetting/clearing the data.

Migration Steps

If you encounter any issues you can revert back to the previous behavior, for now, with:

nuxt.config.ts
export default 
defineNuxtConfig
({
experimental
: {
resetAsyncDataToUndefined
: true,
} })

Please report an issue if you are doing so, as we do not plan to keep this as configurable.

Shallow Data Reactivity in useAsyncData and useFetch

๐Ÿšฆ Impact Level: Minimal

The data object returned from useAsyncData, useFetch, useLazyAsyncData and useLazyFetch is now a shallowRef rather than a ref.

What Changed

When new data is fetched, anything depending on data will still be reactive because the entire object is replaced. But if your code changes a property within that data structure, this will not trigger any reactivity in your app.

Reasons for Change

This brings a significant performance improvement for deeply nested objects and arrays because Vue does not need to watch every single property/array for modification. In most cases, data should also be immutable.

Migration Steps

In most cases, no migration steps are required, but if you rely on the reactivity of the data object then you have two options:

  1. You can granularly opt in to deep reactivity on a per-composable basis:
    - const { data } = useFetch('/api/test')
    + const { data } = useFetch('/api/test', { deep: true })
    
  2. You can change the default behavior on a project-wide basis (not recommended):
    nuxt.config.ts
    export default 
    defineNuxtConfig
    ({
    experimental
    : {
    defaults
    : {
    useAsyncData
    : {
    deep
    : true
    } } } })
If you need to, you can automate this step by running npx codemod@latest nuxt/4/shallow-data-reactivity

Absolute Watch Paths in builder:watch

๐Ÿšฆ Impact Level: Minimal

What Changed

The Nuxt builder:watch hook now emits a path which is absolute rather than relative to your project srcDir.

Reasons for Change

This allows us to support watching paths which are outside your srcDir, and offers better support for layers and other more complex patterns.

Migration Steps

We have already proactively migrated the public Nuxt modules which we are aware use this hook. See issue #25339.

However, if you are a module author using the builder:watch hook and wishing to remain backwards/forwards compatible, you can use the following code to ensure that your code works the same in both Nuxt v3 and Nuxt v4:

+ import { relative, resolve } from 'node:fs'
 // ...
 nuxt.hook('builder:watch', async (event, path) => {
+   path = relative(nuxt.options.srcDir, resolve(nuxt.options.srcDir, path))
   // ...
 })
You can automate this step by running npx codemod@latest nuxt/4/absolute-watch-paths

Removal of window.__NUXT__ object

What Changed

We are removing the global window.__NUXT__ object after the app finishes hydration.

Reasons for Change

This opens the way to multi-app patterns (#21635) and enables us to focus on a single way to access Nuxt app data - useNuxtApp().

Migration Steps

The data is still available, but can be accessed with useNuxtApp().payload:

- console.log(window.__NUXT__)
+ console.log(useNuxtApp().payload)

Directory index scanning

๐Ÿšฆ Impact Level: Medium

What Changed

Child folders in your middleware/ folder are also scanned for index files and these are now also registered as middleware in your project.

Reasons for Change

Nuxt scans a number of folders automatically, including middleware/ and plugins/.

Child folders in your plugins/ folder are scanned for index files and we wanted to make this behavior consistent between scanned directories.

Migration Steps

Probably no migration is necessary but if you wish to revert to previous behavior you can add a hook to filter out these middleware:

export default defineNuxtConfig({
  hooks: {
    'app:resolve'(app) {
      app.middleware = app.middleware.filter(mw => !/\/index\.[^/]+$/.test(mw.path))
    }
  }
})

Template Compilation Changes

๐Ÿšฆ Impact Level: Minimal

What Changed

Previously, Nuxt used lodash/template to compile templates located on the file system using the .ejs file format/syntax.

In addition, we provided some template utilities (serialize, importName, importSources) which could be used for code-generation within these templates, which are now being removed.

Reasons for Change

In Nuxt v3 we moved to a 'virtual' syntax with a getContents() function which is much more flexible and performant.

In addition, lodash/template has had a succession of security issues. These do not really apply to Nuxt projects because it is being used at build-time, not runtime, and by trusted code. However, they still appear in security audits. Moreover, lodash is a hefty dependency and is unused by most projects.

Finally, providing code serialization functions directly within Nuxt is not ideal. Instead, we maintain projects like unjs/knitwork which can be dependencies of your project, and where security issues can be reported/resolved directly without requiring an upgrade of Nuxt itself.

Migration Steps

We have raised PRs to update modules using EJS syntax, but if you need to do this yourself, you have three backwards/forwards-compatible alternatives:

  • Moving your string interpolation logic directly into getContents().
  • Using a custom function to handle the replacement, such as in https://github.com/nuxt-modules/color-mode/pull/240.
  • Continuing to use lodash, as a dependency of your project rather than Nuxt:
+ import { readFileSync } from 'node:fs'
+ import { template } from 'lodash-es'
  // ...
  addTemplate({
    fileName: 'appinsights-vue.js'
    options: { /* some options */ },
-   src: resolver.resolve('./runtime/plugin.ejs'),
+   getContents({ options }) {
+     const contents = readFileSync(resolver.resolve('./runtime/plugin.ejs'), 'utf-8')
+     return template(contents)({ options })
+   },
  })

Finally, if you are using the template utilities (serialize, importName, importSources), you can replace them as follows with utilities from knitwork:

import { genDynamicImport, genImport, genSafeVariableName } from 'knitwork'

const serialize = (data: any) => JSON.stringify(data, null, 2).replace(/"{(.+)}"(?=,?$)/gm, r => JSON.parse(r).replace(/^{(.*)}$/, '$1'))

const importSources = (sources: string | string[], { lazy = false } = {}) => {
  return toArray(sources).map((src) => {
    if (lazy) {
      return `const ${genSafeVariableName(src)} = ${genDynamicImport(src, { comment: `webpackChunkName: ${JSON.stringify(src)}` })}`
    }
    return genImport(src, genSafeVariableName(src))
  }).join('\n')
}

const importName = genSafeVariableName
You can automate this step by running npx codemod@latest nuxt/4/template-compilation-changes

Removal of Experimental Features

๐Ÿšฆ Impact Level: Minimal

What Changed

Four experimental features are no longer configurable in Nuxt 4:

  • experimental.treeshakeClientOnly will be true (default since v3.0)
  • experimental.configSchema will be true (default since v3.3)
  • experimental.polyfillVueUseHead will be false (default since v3.4)
  • experimental.respectNoSSRHeader will be false (default since v3.4)
  • vite.devBundler is no longer configurable - it will use vite-node by default
Reasons for Change

These options have been set to their current values for some time and we do not have a reason to believe that they need to remain configurable.

Migration Steps

Nuxt 2 vs Nuxt 3+

In the table below, there is a quick comparison between 3 versions of Nuxt:

Feature / VersionNuxt 2Nuxt BridgeNuxt 3+
Vue223
Stability๐Ÿ˜Š Stable๐Ÿ˜Š Stable๐Ÿ˜Š Stable
Performance๐ŸŽ Fastโœˆ๏ธ Faster๐Ÿš€ Fastest
Nitro EngineโŒโœ…โœ…
ESM support๐ŸŒ™ Partial๐Ÿ‘ Betterโœ…
TypeScriptโ˜‘๏ธ Opt-in๐Ÿšง Partialโœ…
Composition APIโŒ๐Ÿšง Partialโœ…
Options APIโœ…โœ…โœ…
Components Auto Importโœ…โœ…โœ…
<script setup> syntaxโŒ๐Ÿšง Partialโœ…
Auto ImportsโŒโœ…โœ…
webpack445
Viteโš ๏ธ Partial๐Ÿšง Partialโœ…
Nuxi CLIโŒ Oldโœ… nuxiโœ… nuxi
Static sitesโœ…โœ…โœ…

Nuxt 2 to Nuxt 3+

The migration guide provides a step-by-step comparison of Nuxt 2 features to Nuxt 3+ features and guidance to adapt your current application.

Check out the guide to migrating from Nuxt 2 to Nuxt 3.

Nuxt 2 to Nuxt Bridge

If you prefer to progressively migrate your Nuxt 2 application to Nuxt 3, you can use Nuxt Bridge. Nuxt Bridge is a compatibility layer that allows you to use Nuxt 3+ features in Nuxt 2 with an opt-in mechanism.

Migrate from Nuxt 2 to Nuxt Bridge