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Error Handling

Learn how to catch and handle errors in Nuxt.

Nuxt 3 is a full-stack framework, which means there are several sources of unpreventable user runtime errors that can happen in different contexts:

  • Errors during the Vue rendering lifecycle (SSR & CSR)
  • Server and client startup errors (SSR + CSR)
  • Errors during Nitro server lifecycle (server/ directory)
  • Errors downloading JS chunks
SSR stands for Server-Side Rendering and CSR for Client-Side Rendering.

Vue Errors

You can hook into Vue errors using onErrorCaptured.

In addition, Nuxt provides a vue:error hook that will be called if any errors propagate up to the top level.

If you are using an error reporting framework, you can provide a global handler through vueApp.config.errorHandler. It will receive all Vue errors, even if they are handled.

plugins/error-handler.ts
export default 
defineNuxtPlugin
((
nuxtApp
) => {
nuxtApp
.
vueApp
.
config
.
errorHandler
= (
error
,
instance
,
info
) => {
// handle error, e.g. report to a service } // Also possible
nuxtApp
.
hook
('vue:error', (
error
,
instance
,
info
) => {
// handle error, e.g. report to a service }) })
Note that the vue:error hook is based on onErrorCaptured lifecycle hook.

Startup Errors

Nuxt will call the app:error hook if there are any errors in starting your Nuxt application.

This includes:

  • running Nuxt plugins
  • processing app:created and app:beforeMount hooks
  • rendering your Vue app to HTML (during SSR)
  • mounting the app (on client-side), though you should handle this case with onErrorCaptured or with vue:error
  • processing the app:mounted hook

Nitro Server Errors

You cannot currently define a server-side handler for these errors, but can render an error page, see the Render an Error Page section.

Errors with JS chunks

You might encounter chunk loading errors due to a network connectivity failure or a new deployment (which invalidates your old, hashed JS chunk URLs). Nuxt provides built-in support for handling chunk loading errors by performing a hard reload when a chunk fails to load during route navigation.

You can change this behavior by setting experimental.emitRouteChunkError to false (to disable hooking into these errors at all) or to manual if you want to handle them yourself. If you want to handle chunk loading errors manually, you can check out the the automatic implementation for ideas.

Error Page

When Nuxt encounters a fatal error (any unhandled error on the server, or an error created with fatal: true on the client) it will either render a JSON response (if requested with Accept: application/json header) or trigger a full-screen error page.

An error may occur during the server lifecycle when:

  • processing your Nuxt plugins
  • rendering your Vue app into HTML
  • a server API route throws an error

It can also occur on the client side when:

  • processing your Nuxt plugins
  • before mounting the application (app:beforeMount hook)
  • mounting your app if the error was not handled with onErrorCaptured or vue:error hook
  • the Vue app is initialized and mounted in browser (app:mounted).
Discover all the Nuxt lifecycle hooks.

Customize the default error page by adding ~/error.vue in the source directory of your application, alongside app.vue.

error.vue
<script setup lang="ts">
import type { NuxtError } from '#app'

const props = defineProps({
  error: Object as () => NuxtError
})

const handleError = () => clearError({ redirect: '/' })
</script>

<template>
  <div>
    <h2>{{ error.statusCode }}</h2>
    <button @click="handleError">Clear errors</button>
  </div>
</template>
Read more about error.vue and its uses.

For custom errors we highly recommend to use onErrorCaptured composable that can be called in a page/component setup function or vue:error runtime nuxt hook that can be configured in a nuxt plugin.

plugins/error-handler.ts
export default 
defineNuxtPlugin
(
nuxtApp
=> {
nuxtApp
.
hook
('vue:error', (
err
) => {
// }) })

When you are ready to remove the error page, you can call the clearError helper function, which takes an optional path to redirect to (for example, if you want to navigate to a 'safe' page).

Make sure to check before using anything dependent on Nuxt plugins, such as $route or useRouter, as if a plugin threw an error, then it won't be re-run until you clear the error.
If you are running on Node 16 and you set any cookies when rendering your error page, they will overwrite cookies previously set. We recommend using a newer version of Node as Node 16 reached end-of-life in September 2023.

Error Utils

useError

TS Signature
function useError (): Ref<Error | { url, statusCode, statusMessage, message, description, data }>

This function will return the global Nuxt error that is being handled.

Read more about useError composable.

createError

TS Signature
function createError (err: { cause, data, message, name, stack, statusCode, statusMessage, fatal }): Error

Create an error object with additional metadata. It is usable in both the Vue and Server portions of your app, and is meant to be thrown.

If you throw an error created with createError:

  • on server-side, it will trigger a full-screen error page which you can clear with clearError.
  • on client-side, it will throw a non-fatal error for you to handle. If you need to trigger a full-screen error page, then you can do this by setting fatal: true.
pages/movies/[slug].vue
<script setup lang="ts">
const 
route
=
useRoute
()
const {
data
} = await
useFetch
(`/api/movies/${
route
.
params
.
slug
}`)
if (!
data
.
value
) {
throw
createError
({
statusCode
: 404,
statusMessage
: 'Page Not Found'
}) } </script>
Read more about createError util.

showError

TS Signature
function showError (err: string | Error | { statusCode, statusMessage }): Error

You can call this function at any point on client-side, or (on server side) directly within middleware, plugins or setup() functions. It will trigger a full-screen error page which you can clear with clearError.

It is recommended instead to use throw createError().

Read more about showError util.

clearError

TS Signature
function clearError (options?: { redirect?: string }): Promise<void>

This function will clear the currently handled Nuxt error. It also takes an optional path to redirect to (for example, if you want to navigate to a 'safe' page).

Read more about clearError util.

Render Error in Component

Nuxt also provides a <NuxtErrorBoundary> component that allows you to handle client-side errors within your app, without replacing your entire site with an error page.

This component is responsible for handling errors that occur within its default slot. On client-side, it will prevent the error from bubbling up to the top level, and will render the #error slot instead.

The #error slot will receive error as a prop. (If you set error = null it will trigger re-rendering the default slot; you'll need to ensure that the error is fully resolved first or the error slot will just be rendered a second time.)

If you navigate to another route, the error will be cleared automatically.
pages/index.vue
<template>
  <!-- some content -->
  <NuxtErrorBoundary @error="someErrorLogger">
    <!-- You use the default slot to render your content -->
    <template #error="{ error, clearError }">
      You can display the error locally here: {{ error }}
      <button @click="clearError">
        This will clear the error.
      </button>
    </template>
  </NuxtErrorBoundary>
</template>
Read and edit a live example in Docs > Examples > Advanced > Error Handling.