Middleware Directory

Nuxt provides a customizable route middleware framework you can use throughout your application, ideal for extracting code that you want to run before navigating to a particular route.

Route middleware run within the Vue part of your Nuxt app. Despite the similar name, they are completely different from server middleware, which are run in the Nitro server part of your app.

There are three kinds of route middleware:

  1. Anonymous (or inline) route middleware, which are defined directly in the pages where they are used.
  2. Named route middleware, which are placed in the middleware/ directory and will be automatically loaded via asynchronous import when used on a page. (Note: The route middleware name is normalized to kebab-case, so someMiddleware becomes some-middleware.)
  3. Global route middleware, which are placed in the middleware/ directory (with a .global suffix) and will be automatically run on every route change.

The first two kinds of route middleware can be defined in definePageMeta.


Route middleware are navigation guards that receive the current route and the next route as arguments.

export default defineNuxtRouteMiddleware((to, from) => {
if (to.params.id === '1') {
return abortNavigation()
if (to.path !== '/') {
return navigateTo('/')

Nuxt provides two globally available helpers that can be returned directly from the middleware:

  1. navigateTo (to: RouteLocationRaw | undefined | null, options?: { replace: boolean, redirectCode: number, external: boolean ) - Redirects to the given route, within plugins or middleware. It can also be called directly to perform page navigation.
  2. abortNavigation (err?: string | Error) - Aborts the navigation, with an optional error message.

Unlike navigation guards in the vue-router docs, a third next() argument is not passed, and redirects or route cancellation is handled by returning a value from the middleware. Possible return values are:

  • nothing - does not block navigation and will move to the next middleware function, if any, or complete the route navigation
  • return navigateTo('/') or return navigateTo({ path: '/' }) - redirects to the given path and will set the redirect code to 302 Found if the redirect happens on the server side
  • return navigateTo('/', { redirectCode: 301 }) - redirects to the given path and will set the redirect code to 301 Moved Permanently if the redirect happens on the server side
  • return abortNavigation() - stops the current navigation
  • return abortNavigation(error) - rejects the current navigation with an error

We recommend using the helper functions above for performing redirects or stopping navigation. Other possible return values described in the vue-router docs may work but there may be breaking changes in future.

What Order Middleware Runs In

Middleware runs in the following order:

  1. Global Middleware
  2. Page defined middleware order (if there are multiple middleware declared with the array syntax)

For example, assuming you have the following middleware and component:

middleware/ directory
middleware/ --| analytics.global.ts --| setup.global.ts --| auth.ts
<script setup>
middleware: [
function (to, from) {
// Custom inline middleware

You can expect the middleware to be run in the following order:

  1. analytics.global.ts
  2. setup.global.ts
  3. Custom inline middleware
  4. auth.ts

Ordering Global Middleware

By default, global middleware is executed alphabetically based on the filename.

However, there may be times you want to define a specific order. For example, in the last scenario, setup.global.ts may need to run before analytics.global.ts. In that case, we recommend prefixing global middleware with 'alphabetical' numbering.

middleware/ directory
middleware/ --| 01.setup.global.ts --| 02.analytics.global.ts --| auth.ts

In case you're new to 'alphabetical' numbering, remember that filenames are sorted as strings, not as numeric values. For example, 10.new.global.ts would come before 2.new.global.ts. This is why the example prefixes single digit numbers with 0.

When Middleware Runs

If your site is server-rendered or generated, middleware for the initial page will be executed both when the page is rendered and then again on the client. This might be needed if your middleware needs a browser environment, such as if you have a generated site, aggressively cache responses, or want to read a value from local storage.

However, if you want to avoid this behaviour you can do so:

export default defineNuxtRouteMiddleware(to => {
// skip middleware on server
if (process.server) return
// skip middleware on client side entirely
if (process.client) return
// or only skip middleware on initial client load
const nuxtApp = useNuxtApp()
if (process.client && nuxtApp.isHydrating && nuxtApp.payload.serverRendered) return

Adding Middleware Dynamically

It is possible to add global or named route middleware manually using the addRouteMiddleware() helper function, such as from within a plugin.

export default defineNuxtPlugin(() => {
addRouteMiddleware('global-test', () => {
console.log('this global middleware was added in a plugin and will be run on every route change')
}, { global: true })
addRouteMiddleware('named-test', () => {
console.log('this named middleware was added in a plugin and would override any existing middleware of the same name')

Example: A Named Route Middleware

-| middleware/
---| auth.ts

In your page file, you can reference this route middleware

<script setup>
middleware: ["auth"]
// or middleware: 'auth'

Now, before navigation to that page can complete, the auth route middleware will be run.

Read and edit a live example in Docs > Examples > Routing > Middleware.